Rediscovering Our Water Culture Paths in the Mediterranean

“Much of the past water culture heritage has been left largely unexploited, resulting in neglect, deterioration and even loss of any potential remains”, writes Vangelis Constantianos, Executive Secretary of GWP Mediterranean in this blog.

Holding only 3% of the world’s freshwater resources and hosting 50% of the globe’s “water poor” population – counting to 180 out of its 460 million inhabitants – the Mediterranean is among the most arid regions of the world. (‘Water poor’ are those among our fellow citizens disposing less than 1000m3/person/year)

Yet, there are many more of its characteristics to make it exciting, but challenging too: gifted with natural beauty, diversity and fertility; a mosaic of civilizations, religions and ideas; with a fast growing population with increased urbanization trends in search of a better life; poverty, unemployment, gender disparities; unsustainable consumption over the last decades; high development pressures from tourism, industry and agriculture; rising energy needs; climate variability and change, desertification, pollution and biodiversity loss; etc. Lingering socio-political instability, escalating turbulence and war are encountered in some countries of the region.

Over millennia, each and every among the region’s civilizations have celebrated water as a vital substance integral to survival and development, an enduring symbol of life, rejuvenation, purity and hope; a common denominator of a shared heritage.


Since antique times and through a range of practices, indigenous populations of the Mediterranean region have been utilizing rivers, springs, lakes, aquifers and rainwater for water collection, storage, distribution and flooding emergency responses. Such simple, functional and, yet, sophisticated practices were valorized and advanced by all civilizations, since all have been facing similar water-related limitations.

Improved through observation, experimentation, innovation and adaptation to local needs, practices often evolved to knowledgeable solutions supplying water to human settlements and cultivations: remnants of wells, pipelines, canals, aqueducts, cisterns, reservoirs, ponds, small scale dams and integrated systems do still survive – in the face of modern development sirens – scattered across the Mediterranean, forming a unique cultural compendium of centuries-long water management wisdom.

Yet, the pattern changed when our home tap got conveniently connected to a domestic water distribution system, and much of the past water culture heritage has been left largely unexploited, resulting in neglect, deterioration and even loss of any potential remains. The high value traditionally attributed to water has decreased, and though infrastructure and technology have been managing to provide solutions to our everyday practical needs and problems, they have not made us wiser and more responsible water users.

Understanding and truly appreciating the cultural, emotional and intellectual significance of water in our everyday life, will contribute towards a new, thoughtful, and urgently needed consumer’s water culture, in every possible scale. From leaving the tap running while taking a shower to mastering a river through dams’ building, our own choices make a difference for the future of the most valuable gift of life.

Experiencing cultural heritage related to water can help in this direction, as an everyday reminder to local communities and visitors: further to their sentimental and tradition-praising value, such cultural pieces often still contribute to the local water balance and small scale socioeconomic development. Astonishing examples from all around the region can be reviewed through the ‘Hydria Project’ on ‘Collection, Storage & Distribution of Water in Antiquity: Linking Ancient Wisdom to Modern Needs’ at

For example, how many tourists have noticed the several traditional wells, fountains, cisterns and watermills scattered around the Greek island of Naxos, clear marks of a century long sophisticated water exploitation? How many do exactly know the practical value of the grandiose Larnaca aqueducts in the island of Cyprus that has long been facing water scarcity? How many appreciate the effort undertaken by the Bonifacio inhabitants in the island of Corsica who have been digging caves and wells up to 70 meters down the earth, to get access to the valuable groundwater? How many have visited the amazing Naples underground network of aqueducts and cisterns, dug stone by stone over thousands of years by Ancient Greeks and Romans? How many are aware of the story behind the Matfias, an originally collective community system developed in the Abda Valley, in Morocco, to tackle drought throughout the year in a simple and low-cost manner? How many do truly understand the pride that Timimoun oasis populations in Algeria find in the local foggara systems, these ingenious irrigation systems which find, however, themselves today in great danger and decline?

The Hydria Project is implemented by the Mediterranean Information Office for Environment, Culture and Sustainable Development (MIO-ECSDE) as part of the Mediterranean Education Initiative for Environment and Sustainability (MEdIES). The Global Water Partnership-Mediterranean (GWP-Med) supports and collaborates with MEdIES and the Hydria Project since their launching. Other supporters include the European Commission, UNESCO and the Anna Lindh Foundation.

Inset photo: “Relief depicting hydria carriers from the North Frieze of the Parthenon, circa 447-432 BC (New Acropolis Museum). The scene is part of the sacrificial procession of the Panathenaic festival that is sculptured all around the frieze.”

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Towards Water-wise Cities in Africa

Water security is under threat in many urban centres, writes GWP Senior Network François Brikké in this blog, which was originally published as a guest blog for The African Water Facility (AWF)


Water security is under threat in many urban centres. The very nature of urbanization contributes to water stress: rapid population growth, poor or no waste water management and pollution, competing demands from various sectors of activity, and more frequent water related disasters induced by climate change. Urban growth in Africa is one of the highest in the world, and the urban population is expected to be around 60 % by 2050. It poses not only a major challenge to existing and potentially future urban centres and existing planning and management of water systems has proven to be insufficient.

There is a need for a paradigm shift in the way we plan and manage water resources at urban level in order to reach water wise cities from the perspective of cost effectiveness, technical performance, social equity and environmental sustainability. The Integrated Urban Water Management (IUWM) approach provides a framework for interventions over the entire water cycle and a reconsideration of the way water is used (and reused). It is not a prescriptive model, it is a process that invites current cities and emerging ones to adjust their current planning and management practices, given their own priorities, hydrological and socio-economic contexts.

The IUWM approach is based on the following key principles:

  • Integrated Water Resources Management: considering the whole urban water cycle as one system within the watershed.
  • Participation of key stakeholders: considering the participation of key stakeholders coming from the public, private and social sectors representing different socio economic activities that have an interest in water.
  • Optimum infrastructure design and investments: considering the choice of technologies from the perspective of cost effectiveness, technical performance, social equity and environmental sustainability.
  • Effective water governance: considering both centralized or decentralized systems, with options of involving communities at local level, as well as optimizing public-private and social partnerships.

Blogger’s Bio:
François Brikke is both a development economist and a sanitary engineer. He is now working with the Global Water Partnership based in Stockholm, and is the focal point on the theme of Integrated Urban Water Management. He has 25 years experience in the water actor holding various positions with UNICEF, the Water and Sanitation Program of the World Bank and IRC.

Here is the blog in its original format on AWF’s homepage.

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Water Exports vs. National Heritage in Slovakia

Nitra River, Slovakia (GWP CEE/Muller)

It appears that the government of Slovakia is going to submit a law, in spite of considerable opposition, that will allow the export of water from Slovakia. Dr. Danka Thalmeinerova, GWP’s Senior Knowledge Management Officer, who is from Slovakia, explains the situation.

To mark World Environment Day 2014 (June 5), Dr. Mikulas Huba, a member of the Slovak National Parliament, organized a seminar titled, “Europe and Slovakia through an Environmental Lens” which took place in the Parliament building. Representatives from municipalities, central government, non-governmental organizations, and the general public discussed the “Europe for Citizens” funding programme 2014-2020. Although the seminar was about new European Union (EU) funding schemes for the environment and other priority investments in Slovakia, the most discussed issue was water.

Slovakia is a small country rich with water: natural springs, diverse water-dependent ecosystems, abundant groundwater resources, and with few problems in allocating water to users. Such riches are tempting the government to allow this ‘blue gold’ to be exported to other countries just as oil-rich countries export their ‘black gold.’

But should this be allowed? Dr. Elena Fatulova, Chair of GWP Slovakia, reminded seminar participants that there was a public campaign at the end of 2013, supported by more than 8,500 signatures, urging the Ministry of Environment not to sell Slovakia’s water resources – a resource which the constitution calls a ‘National Heritage.’ The Ministry of Environment insisted that the revision of the Slovak Water Law must include water exports in order to harmonize it with EU rules on internal markets (e.g., the free movement of capital, goods, services, and labour).

However, Dr. Fatulova pointed out that in March 2014 the European Commission published Communication from the Commission on the European Citizens’ Initiative “Water and sanitation are a human right! Water is a public good, not a commodity!” [COM(2014) 177] which declares that “water distribution and supply and wastewater services are expressly excluded from the application of the cross-border freedom to provide services.” Hence there is no obligation to permit the export of water abroad. Ironically, based on this Communication, Slovak authorities could actually do the opposite of what they are planning: they can prohibit water exports without having to defend it against EU internal market rules. In a further irony, virtually all NGOs and professional organizations support the government in wanting to amend some legal provisions in the current Slovak water legislation, but the clause on water exports might end sinking the entire piece of legislation.

Some people have argued that Slovakia should export its water the way others export their oil (even with the knowledge that oil resources are also finite). In addition, there are water-scarce countries that use water to irrigate fields to produce food that is sent abroad (called “virtual water” exports). Nevertheless, the counter arguments are compelling:

  • There is a lack of data on how much disposable volumes of groundwater there are in Slovakia and how long they will last. The data is not sufficient to estimate current and future water consumption of citizens, economic sectors, and ecosystems. Such an assessment is required by the EU Water Framework Directive and was supposed to be completed by the end of 2013.
  • There is evidence that groundwater availability is decreasing and is more difficult to extract.
  • There is also evidence that groundwater quality is deteriorating. Only recently, some water resources were excluded from the public water supply because of poor quality (in other words, it’s polluted).

GWP Slovakia, like other GWP Country Water Partnerships, provides a neutral platform for a multi-stakeholder partnership of government, civil society, and the private sector to address water issues. It is a difficult space to occupy especially when there are conflicting views within the partnership. While GWP Slovakia has not taken a formal position on this issue, it is important to speak up for the resource itself, that is, for water resources to have its voice heard at the table. What do you think?

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Minerals in Water – a Win-Win Issue for Public Health

Dr. Ania Grobicki, GWP’s Executive Secretary, has written the foreword to “Drinking water minerals and mineral balance – importance, health significance, safety precautions” (Rosborg I. et al), a book to be published by Springer Verlag in 2014. Below is an extract from the foreword. 


In the early 21st century, drinking water security is rightly a global concern, as hundreds of millions of people still lack daily access to clean and safe drinking water. The increasing risks of climate change have brought us to the awareness that in many regions of the world, water security is under increasing threat and cannot be taken for granted. In more and more locations, people are drinking water that has been treated and recycled from lower quality water or seawater, while conversely the sales of bottled mineral water are skyrocketing. 

Water is essential for life and health, with each adult human being needing to drink on average at least 2 litres of water per day to maintain optimum fitness and alertness. Water safety is generally linked with the absence of disease-causing bacteria, or pathogens. Yet it is not only the water itself that is crucial to our well-being – the minerals it contains are also vitally important. We talk of “hard” water (which contains high levels of minerals) and “soft” water (which is more acidic). Yet how much do we really know about the mineral constituents of water?  Do we have the public health guidance that we need regarding minerals in water?  Are water providers paying sufficient attention to these minerals, and do they need to be better regulated?  These are the questions which this book goes a long way towards answering. 

The health-giving effects of highly mineralized water, found in spas, have been known for thousands of years, certainly since Roman times. Over time, the dangers of high levels of certain elements in water have also become apparent, with tragedies such as the arsenic present in the drinking water wells of Bangladesh causing wide-spread illness and death. Arsenic toxicity in drinking water is now declared by the WHO as a public health emergency, which has affected more that 130 million people worldwide. Guidelines have been developed with maximum recommended levels of a range of minerals in water. In general, toxicity levels of minerals with regard to human health are now quite well known. 

However, the beneficial health aspects of minerals in water have not been investigated to the same extent. For instance, bicarbonate ions in water help to reduce osteoporosis, and have a strong association with increased longevity, in areas where the water is hard (and bicarbonate alkalinity is high). Broadly, many elements may be beneficial and even essential to health in smaller quantities, and yet harmful in large quantities.  Many people are aware that calcium is the most abundant element in the human body, and that it is essential for building healthy and strong bones and teeth. Yet how many know that it acts as an antagonist to magnesium, which is essential for a healthy heart?  Too much calcium prevents the uptake of magnesium, and hence the optimum balance of these two minerals in the water which we drink is vital to our health. 

The issue of minerals in water is becoming increasingly important as freshwater resources shrink, while ever-growing numbers of people become reliant on treated and recycled water. Water that has been treated by reverse osmosis or distillation is “demineralized”, and drinking such water over a period of time can lead to serious health effects, as has been the case for example in Jordan.  However such treated drinking water can quite simply be remineralized, to the benefit of the population which is dependent upon it. 

Our current drinking water regulations focus on maximum allowed levels of bacteria and toxins. However with regard to mineral balance, it is just as vital that the levels of minerals are properly regulated with regard to both maximum and minimum levels, and to the ratios among the various elements. Safe re-mineralized water provides a win-win situation for public health – people are protected against harmful elements in the water, while being provided with the balance of vital elements which go a long way towards promoting well-being and longevity. Around the world, we need increased policy awareness of this issue, with the development and enforcement of regulations which will provide us with clean, safe, remineralized water.

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Celebrating World Water Day: Thinking Broadly, Acting Specifically

Roberto Lenton is Founding Executive Director of the Robert B. Daugherty Water for Food Institute (DWFI). He is also former Chair of GWP’s Technical Committee, and he continues to support the work of GWP. For World Water Day 2014 he wrote a text in the Water for Food Blog about how to tackle nexuses.


At World Water Week in Stockholm last September, I participated in a session designed to foster a dialog between senior and young professionals. I was, needless to say, in the “senior” category. We’d been tasked with discussing the water/food/energy “Nexus Approach” and were given a set of questions in advance. The lively conversation raised many interesting points. It also exposed a fundamental difference in thinking that helps illuminate a debate I’ve seen intensifying in development circles.

As World Water Day and its water and energy theme are celebrated around the world tomorrow, it is timely to reflect on ways to approach nexuses in ways that are practical and expansive, rather than restrictive.

Some in that Stockholm session seemed to view the “Nexus Approach,” in capitals, as a defined way to organize and frame problems and reach solutions. The image that came to mind was a roadmap or path leading to a food, water and energy secure world.

In contrast, some of us didn’t accept the proposed framework. Our view was broader. Our experience working at the interface of multitudes of connections made us mindful of the different viewpoints, disciplines and scales that must meld to create the future we want. Instead of a rigid Nexus roadmap focused on water, food and energy, we envisioned a broader approach recognizing many interconnections, shifting and changing as conditions warrant and new insights emerge.

During the discussion, it became clear that this broader take had sparked an expansion of thinking. While we need to applaud the idea of celebrating nexuses and focusing attention on interconnections, we should also worry that focusing too much attention on a specific Nexus Approach in capitals gives it too much power. We must have practical, not prescribed, solutions.

Narrowly defining issues is not new. Government agencies, ministries, interest groups and the like have long operated within rigidly defined boundaries. But neither is the idea that things are interconnected. Most groundwater irrigation farmers are all too aware of the nexus between their water costs and their energy costs.

Opening yourself to the array of possibilities can be overwhelming. The innumerable interconnections among water, energy, food, health, policy, the environment, climate, culture, social welfare, history, economics and politics, to name a few, and all operating on scales ranging from the local to the global, is a daunting prospect.

The key – to borrow the environmental movement’s mantra – is to think broadly, act specifically.

Examples of specific acts abound. Just as important, though less tangible, is the need to think broadly and flexibly to inform the specific projects that change lives.

If creatively designed, institutions can provide important forums for the expansive thinking that create a shared vision and form interconnections among disparate groups. That work lays the foundation for acting specifically. Two examples of pioneering institutions that do just that come to mind.

More than 40 years ago, Nebraska created natural resources districts to conserve and protect the state’s natural resources. Arranged around watersheds and locally governed, NRDs have the flexibility to engage all stakeholders and to maneuver in ways that best serve the environment and communities. I have come to know these remarkable institutions first-hand since joining DWFI two years ago. The NRDs have successfully helped to conserve Nebraska’s portion of the nationally significant High Plains Aquifer. When extreme droughts hit, such as occurred in 2012, the water is there to save crops and livelihoods.

At a broader level, the Global Water Partnership, with which I was closely involved during its initial formative years, has grown into an extensive, worldwide network of governmental and non-governmental agencies, private sector groups, research institutes and others operating at different scales, from local to global. GWP brings together relevant stakeholders for the coordinated, strategic thinking and planning that lead to sustainable water management solutions and projects at all levels.

These examples highlight the vital role that flexible, creative institutions can play in expanding thinking and forming connections. Indeed, my most rewarding work has come from being involved in developing these types of institutions, from helping the International Water Management Institute get off the ground in the 1980s and 1990s to my current role as DWFI’s founding director. I’m motivated by the long-term impact achievable from working in that expansive space where so many different realms interconnect and where so many innovative solutions can be found.

On World Water Day, I celebrate the tremendous progress already achieved. Today, the challenges are growing even more complex. But I’m encouraged by my young colleagues in Stockholm and so many others who are embracing the larger possibilities we have yet to explore to achieve the future we want.

This text was originally published in DWFI’s Water for Food Blog.

Photo: GWP at World Water Week 2013

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Ensuring water flows through all effective development co-operation

Global Water Partnership contributed this blog to the Global Partnership for Effective Development Co-operation (GPEDC) to mark World Water Day on Saturday, March 22, 2014.

Farmer  pump water to rice field

By Steven Downey, Global Water Partnership

Water is deeply connected to development. It intersects with virtually every sector in the fight against poverty, and it is clear that sustainable use of freshwater is essential for human development.

The world is consuming more freshwater than nature is able to replenish. And while we celebrate ever more people emerging from poverty, this also puts greater strain on the world’s water resources. Growing populations, and wealthier ones, require more food, energy and material goods. If we are going to have a healthy and prosperous future we have to solve the problems that we ourselves are creating. This raises important challenges for effective development co-operation to address. We need to understand the connections between water and development in order to find equitable ways of sharing limited water resources among many competing demands.

The challenge is simple to state if not to solve: how can we give everyone access to clean water and dignified sanitation while also meeting growing demand for water from other sectors such as agriculture, energy, and industry? Effective co-operation on water requires difficult conversations about how to allocate the resource and what trade-offs are involved. Government, industry, and civil society must work together to figure out how to sustainably manage a country’s water resources in ways that contribute to human health and development.

To celebrate World Water Day 2014’s focus on the connections between water and energy, Global Water Partnership has released a short video explaining the links between these two resources. Water is used to generate energy – and energy is used to provide water. Both are vital to human development and both require successful development co-operation outcomes. Co-operation and co-ordination across engineering, policy and management can maximise the supply of one resource while minimising overuse of the other.

Demand for energy and water also increases with income. In more developed countries, an average person uses nearly five times as much water as a person living in a developing country. Water usage is increasing along with the growing middle income class in the developing world. With the world’s population growing, living standards increasing and climate change putting pressure on water sources, the demand for water is becoming harder and harder to meet.

Because water is connected to virtually all areas of human activity, we need to take a holistic approach to how we manage the resource. Global Water Partnership  advocates for integrated water resources management, that is, the co-ordinated development and management of water, land, and related resources to maximise economic and social welfare without compromising the sustainability the earth’s ecosystems.

Ultimately, we all want to achieve a water secure world. To do that, we need to understand water’s connection to climate change, trans-boundary co-operation, food, urbanisation, energy, and ecosystems—six areas highlighted by Global Water Partnership’s 2014-2019 strategy. Developed through a year-long process of regional dialogues and consultations with our growing network of over 2,900 partner organisations across 172 countries, the Towards 2020 strategy demonstrates how development co-operation is at the very core of what Global Water Partnership does. This strategy is about the stewardship of water resources for the benefit of societies and the environment. It calls for a public responsibility that requires co-operation across all sectors.

Global Water Partnership looks forward to the outcomes of the Global Partnership for Effective Development Co-operation’s First High-Level Meeting in Mexico next month as a way forward for stronger and better overall development co-operation. We are particularly eager for stronger global leadership because water intersects so many other sectors in what is ultimately a fight against poverty and for human development that also protects our environment.

This blog originally appeared on the GPEDC blog site.

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Passionately Committed to Water

In January 2014 Sara Ehrhardt left her home country Canada to join the GWP global secretariat as Senior Technical Officer in Stockholm, Sweden. Among her first assignments, she traveled to Korea as part of the preparatory work being undertaken for the 7th World Water Forum 2015. In this blog she reflects on her place in the wider “water world”.


Photo: Sara Ehrhardt in Korea.

Two months into my time at GWP, I have experienced what some might call a moment of insight.

There I was, sitting next to one of the World Water Council’s Governors as part of the World Water Forum’s 2nd Stakeholder Forum in Korea. I was at my first external meeting as part my new duties as GWP’s Senior Technical Officer.

My introduction to the water world was as a ’water warrior’ – the term used to describe activists challenging the commodification of water resources and advocating for the human right to water. I came into this work following the 2002 World Summit on Sustainable Development and the 3rd World Water Forum in Tokyo.

This was before blogs existed –and the internet was only beginning to connect us in ways that allow a much broader group of actors to become aware of and participate in global sustainable development processes.

My early experiences connecting with water activists around the world led me to a career focused on building solutions across public, private, and not-for-profit sectors. I now bring a decade of experience in finance and environmental management to complement my water activist roots.

My views have not changed. I remain passionately committed to ensuring the voices of the most vulnerable have a place in water management discussions. And I continue to see the need for active and robust civil society and public sector engagement alongside private sector development efforts.

But my experiences both inside and outside of meetings like the Stakeholder Meeting in Korea have convinced me that the world needs us to move beyond ‘inside/outside’ discussions.

We have only one blue planet. We are all ‘inside’ when it comes to managing our limited water resources for sustainable human development. 

This is a critical moment, a time when world leaders are pondering where and how water fits within a post-2015 Development Agenda. Securing water for all is a clear development imperative but the complexities are enormous.

Moving forward, I am more convinced than ever that neutral platforms like the Global Water Partnership are essential for facilitating the difficult conversations needed to tackle integrated water management. It is for this reason that I am inspired to be joining GWP at this time. I look forward to collaborating across our diverse Network and to advancing our global water work.

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Groundwater: Often Invisible

Global Water Partnership regularly provides opportunities for students to do internships with the organization. Fanny Bontemps is studying a Masters in Sustainable Development at AgroParisTech in France. She assisted GWP with research on groundwater and drought topics. Here are her thoughts about her research.

This internship is part of a gap year I have chosen to do before my second year of a master’s degree at AgroparisTech, the French leading university in technologies for life, food and environment sciences. I have been working on African transboundary aquifers and how these non-renewable water resources could be used for a sustainable drought management approach in North Africa.

A lack of knowledge on groundwater has been noticed worldwide. Normally, groundwater is not visible; and until a problem arises, not much attention is being paid to this main fresh water resource. A lack of knowledge is accompanied by lack of information. Being the main fresh water resource in most arid regions of North Africa, groundwater deserves to be better known and sustainably managed.

Spring in desert

Photo: A well in the Sahara desert, Morocco.

To enhance knowledge on groundwater, I conducted research on four transboundary aquifers in North Africa to support the SITWA programme and future drought programmes in East and West Africa. The study of these four major aquifers in the Maghreb region, the Sahel and the Horn of Africa, has highlighted common trends and challenges in groundwater extraction. Due to population growth and precipitation reduction, water demand is constantly increasing. These aquifers are partly or completely non-renewable, this first leads to groundwater drawdown or overexploitation, and then, to name but a few, to ecosystems disappearance and water quality decrease. These issues, currently being faced in groundwater management, seem to stem from a lack of knowledge. Both lead to an inadequate and non-sustainable groundwater management.

Having highlighted the challenges faced while managing non-renewable groundwater, I have started to think about recommendations for integrating groundwater in drought programmes. In order to figure out what had been done and what was currently carried out against drought in North Africa, the Sahel and the Horn of Africa, I made an inventory of all drought programmes. Despite groundwater importance, this inventory has shown that no past or current programmes were focused on groundwater utilisation for drought management. Indeed, in such programmes it is crucial to find how to sustainably exploit a non-renewable resource.

Since current use patterns are not expected to reverse, the overall objective for reaching a sustainable groundwater management should be to abandon the current uncontrolled exploitation. In this new drought strategy, I have observed that three conditions should be fulfilled to reach sustainability: 1) establishing an effective groundwater utilisation, 2) improving population living conditions and the socio-economic development, and 3) making groundwater everybody´s responsibility.

I have learnt a lot doing this research, especially on challenges in African arid regions and on the way development programme are created, formulated and monitored. The hardest part for me was to find information on aquifers and drought programmes: groundwater is not well documented and there are plenty of different drought programmes, so finding precise information on programme dates or outcomes could turn out to be very difficult and time consuming. With more time at GWP I would have liked to follow West and East Africa drought programmes and work on other water-linked topics.

A Few Selected Links:

New Perspectives Paper on Urban Groundwater

A GWP Perspectives Paper: Groundwater Resources and Irrigated Agriculture

IWRM ToolBox: Groundwater Management Plans

New Handbook for Integrated Water Resources Management in the Basins of Transboundary Rivers, Lakes and Aquifers

GWP West Africa: Dialogue on Groundwater: Workshop to Finalize the Project Document

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Water: A no-brainer for the post-2015 agenda

The following blog article was written by the Global Water Partnership for “Outreach“, a multi-stakeholder publication on climate change and sustainable development, produced by Stakeholder Forum for a Sustainable Future, in relation to GWP’s participation at COP19 in Warsaw, Poland.

Typhoon Haiyan in the Philippines happened as if on cue – to put it crudely. As the world’s climate negotiators and policymakers were getting ready for another round of discussions in Poland, the shocking reality of Haiyan’s aftermath became a harsh reminder that extreme weather affects millions of people on earth. And while scientists say that a single storm cannot be blamed on climate change, nevertheless a catastrophe of this magnitude serves as a wake-up call for the international community. It comes only weeks after the UN’s Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) published its latest findings, which reaffirmed that human-generated climate change is real.

Typhoon Kiko by Ernie Penaredondo

So on the first day of COP 19, the Philippines’ lead negotiator, Yeb Sano, made headlines with his tearful appeal to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) negotiators: ‘We can stop this madness. Right here in Warsaw,’ Mr. Sano said, ‘we cannot afford to procrastinate on climate action.’

Water is at the core of sustainable development. Climate change is the great spoiler because we know that the effects of climate change will be felt through the water cycle: more frequent and severe storms, more frequent and severe droughts and floods, sea level rise, glacier melt, etc.

At its seventeenth session, the Conference of the Parties (COP) to the UNFCCC acknowledged that national adaptation planning can enable developing countries and Least Developed Countries (LDCs), to assess their vulnerabilities, mainstream climate change risks, and address adaptation. The COP established the National Adaptation Plan (NAP) process to facilitate adaptation planning.

So what do we need to do? Let us start by recognising that countries with robust water management systems, institutions, and water infrastructure are better able to cope with climate change impacts. And then, on a practical level, we can:

  • Develop the capacity of countries to build robust and flexible institutions that can respond to sudden changes and shocks. Capacity requirements include strengthening water resources monitoring and data collection, modelling, risk mapping and assessment, policy development, investment preparation, and performance measurement;
  • Support decisions on adaptation priorities with appropriate information, data, and knowledge;
  • Finance the implementation of NAPs – adapting to climate change will require the mobilisation of financial resources through the blending of funds from public, private, and multilateral sources; and
  • Prioritise no and low regret options – there is a high degree of uncertainty over climate change impacts, but managing natural resources in a sustainable way – avoiding over exploitation – will improve the resilience of natural systems under future climate scenarios.

Global Water Partnership supports countries in the NAP process through the Global Water, Climate and Development Programme (WACDEP), in particular countries who are trying to integrate water security and climate resilience in development planning and decision-making processes. WACDEP is running from 2011 to 2016 and targets 60 countries in Africa, South Asia, Southeast Asia, the Caribbean, Central and Eastern Europe, Central Asia and Caucasus, Mediterranean and Latin America.

But there’s something more. 2015 is approaching fast and the world leaders are beginning to focus on the Post-2015 Development Agenda. If indeed water is at the core of sustainable development, and if climate change threatens that development, then what better way to address this ‘perfect storm’ than to have a dedicated Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) on water, with associated targets on disaster risk reduction. Such a goal would contribute to the objectives of NAPs and promote coherence on water related adaptation. Furthermore, it would focus the attention of all governments on the task of improving the management of the world’s water resources: harnessing its productive power and minimising its destructive force. As Mr. Sano reminds us, ‘we cannot afford to procrastinate…’

More information

Photo: Typhoon Kiko by Ernie Penaredondo GWP/PWP

Posted in Climate change, COP19, Floods, IWRM, Partnership, Sustainable Development, UNFCCC | 1 Comment

Invest in the Future!

Helene Komlos Grill, Senior Communications Officer at the Global Water Partnership, attended the Budapest Water Summit 8-11 October 2013. These are her reflections about the Summit.

Budapest Water Summit plenary hall“Close your eyes and listen”, my colleague Dr Danka Thalmeinerova, GWP Senior Knowledge Management Officer, said to me at the recently finished Budapest Water Summit, organised by the Hungarian government 8-11 October 2013. “If you listen carefully to the young people talking at the Youth Forum, you will hear that there is no difference to what the High-Level Panel is saying”. I was told that this is because young people will not be listened to if they do not speak the language of the already established water community representatives.

The Budapest Water Summit was a big success for the water community and the hosting country Hungary. A call for a dedicated sustainable goal for water was clearly communicated at the highest level in the Budapest Water Statement, endorsed by the participants. “Water holds the key for sustainable development, and therefore it needs a dedicated sustainable development goal”, UN Secretary General Ban Ki-moon said in his inauguration speech.

A participatory approach with multi-stakeholder involvement, cooperation, improved governance structures, and capacity building of people and institutions was repeated as being the solution to moving to a more sustainable future where water is better managed and used.

However, many questions still remain. If the consensus is so big that an integrated approach to managing water resources is the best solution, how come that water is not valued higher? “Why is a country’s wealth expressed in gold, diamonds and oil and not by its water resources?” was a question asked at the event. The importance of water is not reflected in the investments made.

IWRM is about change. It is a process which aims at improving how we manage water, and in order to do so, we need to do things differently than we do today. IWRM provides the tools: it educates the people and institutions engaged, it invites stakeholders to discuss and have a say, it pushes us to talk and compromise, rather than to fight over the same resource. It provides a platform for cooperation.

If we say that we should do things differently, is it equal to inventing new terminology? Why not use what we already know and improve it? “The food-energy-water nexus and IWRM reinforce each other” said GWP Technical Committee Chair Dr Mohamed Ait-Kadi in a session at the Summit. If IWRM is the working model, new names for it only reinforce the fact that the cross-sectoral approach is what we need to use to make the necessary trade-offs to make change happen.

“The water crisis is mainly a governance crisis”, said GWP Chair Dr Ursula Schaefer-Preuss in a high-level panel. We therefore need to focus on educating the managers, the users, the decision and policy makers, to make sure they understand the true value of water, and how to manage it better.

And, we need to listen and be able to take on new ideas from the younger generation, even if they may not say what we have already heard before. The knowledge of what we know now has to be fed with new thinking so that the process of change does not stop. All the MDGs will not be achieved by 2015, and the formulation of the Sustainable Development Goals therefore needs to take on from what has not been achieved, and make sure that the process of change continues.

“Do not only invest in hard infrastructure projects, but also in the soft management of water, such as capacity building and multi-stakeholder dialogues”, GWP Executive Secretary Dr Ania Grobicki said at the Civil Society Forum, focussing on the people using and managing water.

Allocation of finances is crucial. Without investments in people, education and knowledge, nothing will happen, and no new ideas will be taken on board. Talking is good, but acting now is essential. Money talks so I will finish by quoting a famous movie line, “Show me the money!” Invest in water now for a sustainable future.

Read more about GWP’s participation at the Summit.

See pictures of GWP’s participation.

Posted in Development, IWRM, Rio+20, Sustainable Development, United Nations, Water Cooperation, Water resources management, Water security | 1 Comment